H 24, Ch. 1, h 24

Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from ‘Isma’il ibn Mihran from certain persons of his people from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) who has said the following.
“Intelligence is the guide of a true believer.”

 H 25, Ch. 1, h 25

Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu’alla ibn Muhammad from al-Washsha’ from Hammad ibn ‘Uthman from al-Sariy ibn Khalid from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) who has said the following.
” The Messenger of Allah said, ‘O Ali, no poverty is more sever than ignorance and no property is more profitable than intelligence.”


Ahl-e-Bait, Ethical Role-Models by Sayyid Mahdi As-Sadr


…..continued from the Book


Chastity is the abstention from whatever is unallowable and unsuitable, such as excessive food and carnal appetites. It is among the noblest traits and highest features that indicate elevation of faith, self-honoring, and dignity:

The Prophet (s) said: “The two hollow things—the stomach and the genitals, are the main reasons beyond my umma’s being in Hell.”

Imam al-Baqir (a) said: “The best worship in the sight of Allah is the chastity of the stomach and the genitals.”

A man said to Imam al-Baqir (a) that his practices of worship were weak and his prayers and days of fasting were few; however, he hope he would eat and copulate only in legal ways. The Imam answered: “No jihad is better than the chastity of the stomach and the genitals.”

Reality of Chastity

 Chastity does not mean to deprive oneself of the legal desires of food and sex. It only represents the moderation in the use of such desires. As a matter of fact, negligence and excess are always harmful to humankind. The excessive desires for food and sex cause gross dangers to which we will refer in our discussion of gluttony. Shortage in such desires also causes deprivation of the life enjoyments and legal pleasures. It also causes bodily weakness as well as feebleness of energies and morale.

The Sought Moderation

It is difficult to identify the moderation in the desires for food and sex because of the different needs and energies of individuals. Moderation of an individual may be considered as exaggeration or shortage for another. The relative moderation is to have only the quantity that is sufficient, away from greed and fill. The best criterion in this regard is that which was stated by Amir ul-Mu’minin:

Son! May I instruct you four words after which you will no longer need medicine? Do not eat unless you are hungry. Stop eating while you are still hungry. Chew food deliberately. Before sleeping, go to toilet. You will not need medicine if you follow.”

“In the holy Quran, there is a Verse gathering the whole matter of medicine. It is: “Eat and drink but do not be excessive.” (7:31)

Advantages of Chastity

Chastity achieves happiness on both levels of individuals and communities. It beautifies man, raises him above gluttony, guards him against flattery to the mean ones, and enjoins him to gain the means of living and desires of life through legal ways.

GLUTTONY (Greedines/Excess)





H 26, Ch. 1, h 26

Muhammad ibn al-Hassan has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from ibn abu Najran from al-‘Ala’ ibn Razin from Muhammad ibn Muslim from abu Ja’far (a.s) who has said the following.
When Allah, God, created intelligence He said to it, ‘Come forward’. It came forward. He then said, “Go back.” It went back. Then Allah said, “I swear by My honor and glory that I have not created any creature more beautiful than you. I will command only you to do certain things and prohibit only you from doing certain things. I will grant blessings (rewards) to you only and will subject only you to punishments.”



Ahl-e-Bait, Ethical Role-Models by Sayyid Mahdi As-Sadr


…..continued from the Book

GLUTTONY (Greedines/Excess)

Gluttony is the opposite of chastity. It stands for the excessive desires for food and sex. It is a mean tendency indicating self-feebleness, greedy nature, and slavery of instincts.

Amir ul-Mu’minin (a) said: “He who wants to survive, yet no one will survive forever, should ease his back –from the burdens of debts-, have the food as early as possible, and reduce copulation with women.”


Once, Amir ul-Mu’minin (a) ate some dates, drank water, and then beat on his stomach with his hand and said: “Away with him who lets his stomach cause him to be in Hell.” He then recited the poetic verse:


Whenever you respond to the desires of your stomach and genitals, they both will give nothing but the extreme dispraise.


Imam as-Sadiq (a) said: “Gluttony is the source of every malady except fever, which appears to the body.”

 “The sated stomach overdoes.”

“Allah hates the overeating.”


Abu al-Hasan (a) said: “If people have moderate food, their bodies will be healthy.”

Disadvantages of Gluttony

It is not unacceptable to say that gluttony, charms of the falsities of life, and attraction of luxury and lavish expenditure have been the main elements of retardation. All these elements have taken the nations into corruption. Overeating, for example, has many bad results. Modern medicine has proved that most of the diseases, curls, lines on the skins that deform the attractive lineaments of men and women, accumulation of fats, deepness of eyes, exhausting powers, and ailed mentalities—the reason of all these defects is the continuous gluttony and the fatty foods. It has been also proved that overeating exhausts the stomach and creates various sorts of healthy troubles, such as arteriosclerosis, angina pectoris, hypertension, and diabetes.

The sexual gluttony also causes similar defects, such as impotence of the public health, disappearance of nervous power, and vanishing of vitality.

Treatment of Gluttony

(1)  It is necessary for the overeater to keep in mind the advantages of chastity and ponder over the disadvantages of gluttony.

(2)  It is necessary for the overeater to try his best to train himself on moderate food. The protective and remedial constitution of health is the moderation of food and the avoidance of overeating. This constitution is summarized in the holy Verse:

“Eat and drink but do not be excessive.” (7:31)

The treatment of the sexual gluttony is as follows:(1)   Keeping in mind the dangers of sexual excess and moral and material corruptions.

(2)  Striving the stimulatives of sexual desires, such as looking at the beauties of women, mixing of the sexes, excessive sexual imagination, and daydreams.

A believer is the brother and guide of another believer.

Ibne Sayyaba, a resident of Kufa, was a young man whose father had died. The tragedy of the death of his father, coupled with poverty and unemployment, was destroying the soul of the sensitive man. One day while sitting in his house, he heard a knock at the door. He was a friend of his father. After offering his condolences, he said:”Did your father leave anything for you?””No”

“Then take this thousand Dirham; try to turn it into a capital, and meet your expense from its profit”.

Saying these words he went away. Ibne Sayyaba, happy as he was, went to his mother and showing the money told her the story. The same day, he used the money in purchasing some merchandise and opening a shop; and set his heart to it. He made a rapid progress. Soon after he realised that not only he had met his household expenses from the profit, but also the capital had increased to a great extent. Now he thought of performing pilgrimage, and approached his mother for her advice. She said, “First you should repay the thousand Dirham which has brought such prosperity to us, and then you may go to Makkah.”

He went to see the friend of his father, and placing a purse of one thousand Dirham before him, said, “Please accept your money back.” The man thought that Ibne Sayyaba was returning the same money because it was not sufficient for any trade. So he said:

“If the amount is insufficient I can increase it.”

“Good God, it was not insufficient. It has brought great prosperity to us and since I am now quite well off financially, I have come to repay your money, and to express my thanks to you, particularly when I have decided to go on pilgrimage.

He came to his home and packed his luggage for Makkah.

After performance of the holy Hajj, he came to Medina and went to see Imam Sadique (a.s.) along with other pilgrims. There was a huge crowd in the house of the Imam (a.s.). Being young he chose to sit at the far end of the gathering, and from there watched the people coming and going; and heard their questions and the answers given by the Imam. When the house became nearly empty, the Imam ( a.s.) pointed to him and said:

Imam Sadiq said: A believer is the brother and guide of another believer. He does not betray or oppress him, nor does he ever cheat his brother. A believer never breaks his promise.

“What can I do for you?”

“I am Abdur Rehman, son of Sayyaba, of Kufa (from the tribe of Bijilly).”

“How is your father?”

“He died”

“Ah! Ah! May God have His mercy upon him. Did he leave anything for you?”

“No, he didn’t”

“Then how could you perform pilgrimage?”

“After the death of my father we were in distress. On one side his death and on the other side poverty and unemployment, were crushing us extremely. Then one day a friend of my father gave me one thousand Dirham and advised me to invest the amount in business. I followed his advice and from its profit I came to perform pilgrimage”.

Before he could finish his story, the Imam (a.s.) said, “Tell me what did you do about the money of your father’s friend?”

I refunded the amount on the advice of my mother before coming out for Hajj”.

“Very good. Do you like me to give you an advice?”

“May I be your ransom; of course”

“Be truthful and righteous. A truthful and righteous man is a partner in the wealth of others”.

Merits of ‘Ulama (Islamic Scholars)

The Holy Prophet [s] said: “Ask (questions from) the learned, speak with the wise, and associate with the poor.”

Tuhaf-ul-‘Uqul, p. 34


Imam as-Sadiq (as) has said, “The kings are rulers of the people and the ‘Ulama are the rulers of the kings”. (Meezan al-Hikmah)

There is no doubt that the true and the virtuous ‘Ulama have always enjoyed greater status then all the kings and rulers put together. History has shown that

the kings and the rulers of the world have always bowed down in respect before the ‘Ulama Or they have used ways and means to either isolate them from the society or eliminate them because they considered them as threats.

“Say (O Muhammad): Can those who know and those who do not know be equal? Verily only the men of understanding take the heed”. (39:9)


It is related that:

[ There was a great Shia’h Scholar in the days of our 10th Imam (as). Once a Nasibi (a person who curses the Ahlul-Bayt) had a debate with this scholar and the scholar defeated him through Quranic verses and Prophetic traditions. One day this scholar came into a gathering, which consisted mostly of Alavids and people of Banu Hashim; and Imam Al-Hadi (as) was also present. In the centre of that gathering, Imam (as) was seated and there was a huge pillow placed at that spot. As soon as the Imam (as) saw this scholar, he (as) rose from his place and asked the scholar to come forward until the Imam (as) made him sit next to him and offered him the pillow to relax. One old man from Banu Hashim did not like this, so he complained saying, “O Son of the Prophet! How can you give preference to an ordinary person over a Sayyid who belongs to the progeny of Abu Talib and Abbas?” When our Imam (as) heard this, he (as) was extremely furious with the old man and started quoting verses from the Holy Quran to prove the supremacy of a scholar over everyone else.

Imam (as) asked the people present there: “Do you believe the commands of Allah in the Quran?” They all said, “Yes!” Then the Imam (as) said, “Hasn’t Allah (SWT) said: “Allah will raise those who have faith and those who have been given knowledge in rank…” (58:11). Then know that just as Allah loves a Mumin over a non-Mumin, similarly, He loves a Mumin with knowledge over a Mumin without knowledge. (Now tell me) Hasn’t Allah (SWT) also said, “Say (O Muhammad): Can those who know and those who do not know be equal? Verily only the men of understanding take the heed”. (39:9) Then why are you people trying to stop me from giving preference to one who has been preferred by Allah (SWT)?? This Scholar has utilized his knowledge, which Allah (SWT) has blessed him and defeated our enemy with it. This act is better than any family ties and relation in my eyes”. ] (Al-Ihtijaaj)

The Holy Prophet (saww) has said, “The superiority of a Scholar over others is like the superiority of a Prophet over his nation”. (Kanzul-‘Ummaal)

He (saww) has also said, “The –Religious- Scholars are the trustees of Allah upon His –entire- creation”. (Kanzul-‘Ummaal)


Our duties towards our ‘Ulama are: We must accord them with maximum respect; Follow their guidance as required; Not to challenge them with our ignorance; Love them and never show hostility towards them

The Holy Prophet (saww) has said, “Beware! Never belie a Scholar, and do not come in confrontation against him, do not be hostile towards him and love him. For verily their love is the sign of sincerity and hostility to them is the sign of hypocrisy. Beware! Do not insult a Scholar. Whoever insults him insults me and whoever insults me insults Allah and whoever insults Allah then his path is to Hellfire. Whoever honours a Scholar, honours me. And whoever honours me, honours Allah. And whoever honours Allah then his path is towards Paradise “. (Gunahaane-e-Kabeera)


Imam Ja’ffar as-Sadiq (as) was the most knowledgeable person of his time. Despite this, the people who studied under him and became virtuous Scholars, Imam (as) accorded them with maxim respect and supported them in different ways.

Abu Hamza Thumali was a companion as well as a devotee of our Imam (as). Infact he had the honour of being with 4 Imams (as) during his lifetime. This companion was also regarded as a Scholar of a very high calibre. Imam Ja’ffar as-Sadiq (as) used to say: “I feel mental tranquillity on seeing him”. Imam ar-Ridha (as) said of him, “He was the Salman al-Farsi of his age”. (Status of Imam as-Sadiq)

Himraan bin Aayoon. Once a most learned Syrian scholar came to our Imam (as) and a controversy occurred in a matter. Imam (as) ordered Himraan to argue with the Syrian. He managed to do so with such skills that the Syrian was dumbfounded. It is also related that once our Imam (as) was in Hajj when Bukeer, the brother of Himraan came to our Imam (as) and conveyed his brother’s salaams to him. Imam (as) said , “Himraan belongs to the people of Paradise and his faith is unshakeable”. (Status of Imam as-Sadiq)

Etiquette of Sickness and Visiting Sick People

Etiquette of Sickness and Visiting Sick People

آداب العيادة والمرض

When the Prophet (s.a.w) would see a pimple on his body he would seek refuge in and humble himself to Allah. He would be asked: ‘Does it matter, O Messenger of Allah?’ He would say that ‘If God wanted to turn a minor concern into a major one, He could; and if He wanted to turn a major concern into a minor one, He could’. [Reference: Makarim al-Akhlaq]

و كان رسول الله (ص) إذا رأى في جسمه بثرة عاذ بالله و استكان له و جار إليه ، فيقال له يا رسول الله أهو بأس ؟.. فيقول إن الله إذا أراد أن يعظم صغيرا عظمه ، و إذا أراد أن يصغر عظيما صغره .{ مكارم الاخلاق }

Imam al-Sadiq (a.s) said: Truly, there no ache, misfortune, headache or malady but because of a misdeed (sin); and that is
(found) in Allah’s saying: “Whatever affliction may visit you is for what your hands have earned; and He pardons much.” And what Allah pardons is more than what He punishes for.” [Reference: Makarim al-Akhlaq]

عن أبي عبد الله ع قال: أما إنه ليس من عرق يضرب و لا نكبة و لا صداع و لا مرض إلا بذنب و ذلك قوله عز و جل في كتابه : وَ ما أَصابَكُمْ مِنْ مُصِيبَةٍ فَبِما كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِيكُمْ وَ يَعْفُوا عَنْ كَثِيرٍ.. ثم قال : وما يعفو الله أكثر مما يأخذ به .عن أبي عبد الله ع قال أما إنه ليس من عرق يضرب و لا نكبة و لا صداع و لا مرض إلا بذنب و ذلك قوله عز و جل في كتابه وَ ما أَصابَكُمْ مِنْ مُصِيبَةٍ فَبِما كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِيكُمْ وَ يَعْفُوا عَنْ كَثِيرٍ ثم قال و ما يعفو الله أكثر مما يأخذ به .{ مكارم الاخلاق }

He (a.s) said: “When the believer experiences a single episode of fever, his sins would fall off as tree leaves would; and if he becomes bed-ridden, his moaning is counted as tasbeeh (glorifying God)”. [Reference: Makarim al-Akhlaq]

قال (ع) : إن المؤمن إذا حم حماة واحدة ، تناثرت الذنوب منه كورق الشجر ، فإن صار على فراشه فأنينه تسبيح…..{ مكارم الاخلاق }

Imam al-Sajjad (a.s) said: ” What a perfect ailment fever is! It gives each organ its fair share of the affliction; and there is no good in someone who is not afflicted.” [Reference: Makarim al-Akhlaq]

قال السجاد (ع) : نعم الوجع الحمّى ، يعطي كل عضو قسطه من البلاء ، و لا خير فيمن لا يبتلى .{ مكارم الاخلاق }

Zorarah quoted either Imam al-Baqir or Imam al-Sadiq (a.s) as saying: “Having a single sleepless night from an ailment is superior to, and greater in reward than a year’s worship.”
[Reference: Makarim al-Akhlaq]

زرارة عن أحدهما (ع) قال : سهر ليلة من مرض أو وجع ، أفضل و أعظم أجرا من عبادة سنة .{ مكارم الاخلاق }

Imam al-Baqir (a.s): “One night’s fever equals two years of worship; two nights’ fever equals two years of worship; and three nights’ fever equals seventy years of worship”. Abu-Hamza (Althumaly) said; “What if he does not attain Seventy?” I asked (the Imam). He said: “Then (it will be reckoned) to his parents”. “What if they do not attain (Seventy)?” I asked. He said: “Then it will be reckoned to his relatives.” And what if the do not attain Seventy” I said.
He said: “Then it will be reckoned to his neighbours”. [Reference: Makarim al-Akhlaq]

قال الباقر (ع) : قال حمى ليلة تعدل عبادة سنة ، و حمى ليلتين تعدل عبادة سنتين ، و حمى ثلاث تعدل عبادة سبعين سنة .. قال أبو حمزة قلت : فإن لم يبلغ سبعين سنة؟.. قال : فلأبيه و أمه ، قلت : فإن لم يبلغا؟.. قال : فلقرابته ، قلت : فإن لم تبلغ قرابته ؟.. قال : فلجيرانه. { مكارم الاخلاق }

Imam al-Sadiq (a.s) said: “If Allah favours a servant, He would look at him; and if He does, He would present him with one of three things: Fever, eye-ache or headache.” [Reference: Makarim al-Akhlaq]

قال الصادق (ع) : إن الله إذا أحب عبدا نظر إليه ، و إذا نظر إليه أتحفه بواحدة من ثلاث : إما حمى أو وجع عين أو صداع .{ مكارم الاخلاق }

The sick person has four peculiarities: His misdeeds are off the record, Allah commands an angel to record every kindness he used to do in his health, his illness goes after every organ in his body and removes its sins from it so that he will end up being forgiven whether he dies (from the illness) or survives it. [Reference: Makarim al-Akhlaq]

قال رسول الله (ص) : للمريض أربع خصال : يرفع عنه القلم ، و يأمر الله الملك فيكتب له كل فضل كان يعمله في صحته ، و يتبع مرضه كل عضو في جسده فيستخرج ذنوبه منه ، فإن مات مات مغفورا له و إن عاش عاش مغفورا له .{ مكارم الاخلاق }

The Prophet (s.a.w) said: “The perfect visitation of the sick person is when you put your hand on him and ask him how he is feeling. And the handshake is the perfect greeting.” [Reference: Makarim al-Akhlaq]

قال (ص): تمام عيادة المريض أن يضع أحدكم يده عليه و يسأله كيف أنت ، كيف أصبحت ، و كيف أمسيت ؟.. و تمام تحيتكم المصافحة .{ مكارم الاخلاق }

A companion of Jafer son of Mohammad (a.s) (Imam al-Sadiq) related: “One of the Imam’s friends became ill and we-a group of the Imam’s friends- went to visit him. The Imam – a.s- stopped us on the way and said: ‘Where are you heading for?’ We said: ‘To visit so-and-so in his sickness.’ ‘Do any of you have on him an apple, a quince, a citron, a little perfume or an incense rod?’ He asked.
‘Nothing of that!’ We replied. He said: ‘Didn’t you know that the sick person is pleased with anything that is presented to him?’ [Reference: Makarim al-Akhlaq]

مولى لجعفر بن محمد (ع) قال : مرض بعض مواليه فخرجنا نعوده و نحن عدة من مواليه ، فاستقبلنا (ع) في بعض الطريق .. فقال: أين تريدون ؟.. فقلنا : نريد فلانا نعوده ، فقال : قفوا ، فوقفنا.. قال: مع أحدكم تفاحة أو سفرجلة أو أترجة أو لعقة من طيب أو قطعة من عود ؟.. فقلنا : ما معنا من هذا شي‏ء ، قال : أما علمتم أن المريض يستريح إلى كل ما أدخل به عليه ؟..{ مكارم الاخلاق }

Imam al-Sadiq (a.s) said: “You put your hand on the painful spot and repeat the following three times; ‘O, Allah! I ask you by the Glorious Koran-which the Faithful Spirit (Gabriel) brought down and with you, in the Essence of The Book, it is sublime and wise-to please cure me with Your Remedy and spare me Your Malady.’
Then pray and ask for blessings for the Prophet (s.a.w). [Reference: al-Kafee vol.2, p. 568]

عن أبي عبد الله (ع) قال: “تضع يدك على موضع الوجع وتقول: ‘اللهم إني أسألك بحق القرآن العظيم الذي نزل به الروح الأمين وهو عندك في أم الكتاب علي حكيم أن تشفيني بشفائك وتداويني بداوئك وتعافيني من بلائك’ ثلاث مرات وتصلي على محمد وآله” .الكافي ج 2 – ص 568

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